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Search & Paging Syntax

Data retrieval services typically include standard parameters for searching, sorting, and pagination.

  1. Pagination Parameters
  2. Sort Parameters
  3. Search Parameters
  4. Data Types
    1. Date
    2. Datetime
    3. Time
    4. Integer
    5. Decimal
    6. Character
    7. Boolean
    8. NULL
  5. Functions
  6. SparkQL Errors

Pagination Parameters

Pagination allows data to be retrieved in sets of a specified size and provides additional data about the result set.

Parameter Description
_limit Integer >= 0 and <= 25 indicating how many results to return at once. The default is 10. For keys with the replication role it may be >= 0 and <= 1000.
  • 0 means don't return the Pagination hash in the response.
  • 1 means to return the Pagination hash, which includes the result set size.
  • count means to return just the number of rows and omit any individual records from the response. The response will return the Pagination hash, but will always have an empty Results attribute.
The default is 0.
_page Indicates the page number of the result set to return, where 1 is the first page. This value cannot exceed 100000.
_skip Return results starting with the next item past this index. The value must range between 0 and 2500000, and when using this parameter, the Pagination hash will contain the CurrentOffset attribute in place of CurrentPage.
_skiptoken This parameter is used as an offset to allow paging without missing data. The first request should have an empty value. Then responses will contain a SkipToken attribute to use in subsequent requests.

When the Pagination hash is enabled, the response will include the following:

"Pagination": {
  "TotalRows": 78,
  "PageSize": 25,
  "TotalPages": 4,
  "CurrentPage": 1
Attribute Description
TotalRows The total number of rows in the response.
PageSize The number of rows that are returned in a single page.
TotalPages The total number of pages in the response.
CurrentPage The page number of the current response.
CurrentOffset The offset of the current response. Only available when using the _skip parameter.

Sort Parameters

Sorting is typically available on resources that allow searching.

Parameter Description
_orderby Indicates the order in which to return records in the result set. Each service has its own default order.

Any searchable field can be present in the _orderby parameter, with some exceptions (e.g. longer text fields such as PublicRemarks for listings). To specify "Ascending" or "Descending" order, prefix the field used in the _orderby parameter with the+ and - characters, respectively.

Ordering listing results descending by ListPrice


Ordering listing results by multiple attributes:


Search Parameters

Request parameters below are common to data retrieval services supporting searching.

Parameter Description
_filter Of the format <field> <operator> <condition> [<connector> <field> <operator> <condition>]

The components of a filter string are as follows:

Connector Description Example
And Logical conjunction PropertyType Eq 'A' And BathsTotal Eq 3.0
Or Logical disjunction PropertyType Eq 'A' Or BathsTotal Eq 3.0
Not Logical negation on a single field or as a connector between fields PropertyType Eq 'A' Not BathsTotal Eq 3.0
Operator Description Applies To These Data Types Example
Eq Equal. All BathsTotal Eq 4.0
Ne Not equal. All City Ne 'Fargo'
Bt Between. Date, Datetime, Integer, and Decimal BathsTotal Bt 3.0,4.0
Gt Greater than. Date, Datetime, Integer, and Decimal BathsTotal Gt 2.0
Ge Greater than or equal to. Date, Datetime, Integer, and Decimal BathsTotal Ge 2.0
Lt Less than. Date, Datetime, Integer, and Decimal BathsTotal Lt 4.0
Le Less than or equal to. Date, Datetime, Integer, and Decimal BathsTotal Le 4.0

_filter supports one level of parameter nesting with parentheses. Valid query with one level of nesting:

Field1 Eq 'Value1' And (Field2 Eq 'Value2' Or Field3 Eq 'Value3')

Invalid query with two levels of nesting:

Field1 Eq 'Value1' And (Field2 Eq 'Value2' Or (Field3 Eq 'Value3' And Field4 Eq 'Value4'))

Data Types

All data values are one of the following defined data types.

Data Type Format Example
Date YYYY-MM-DD 2008-10-31
Datetime YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss 2003-04-01T19:01:02Z
Time hh:mm:ss (seconds are optional) 12:00:00
Integer A number no decimal component 142
Decimal A number with X (0-N) decimal places 142.01
Character An alphanumeric string, padded with single quotes 'Lorem O\'Little Ipsum'
Boolean true or false true


Example: 2008-10-31

The Date type follows ISO 8601.


Example: 2003-04-01T19:01:02Z

The Datetime type follows ISO 8601.


Example: 19:01:02

The Time type specifies the time element of a Datetime type but is not specific to a date.


Example: 142

The Integer data type specifies a number with no decimal component.



Example: 142.01

The Decimal data type specifies a number with a decimal component.



Example: 'Lorem O\'Little Ipsum'

The Character data type specifies a string, and is always padded with single quotes.


The Character data type supports the following two wildcard operators:

Operator Description Example
* Matches zero or more occurrences of any character. 'F*rgo' regex: /F.*rgo/
? Matches zero or one occurrences of any character. 'F?rgo' regex: /F.?rgo/

Case-Insensitive Searching
When a wildcard is present, the search criterion will be applied as a case-insensitive match; without a wildcard, it will be case-sensitive.


Note the following restrictions on using wildcards:

  1. A condition may not exist solely of wildcards.
  2. A condition may not include more than three wildcard operators.
  3. Wildcards may only be used with the Eq and Ne operators.

Escaping Special Characters

Any special character (wildcards or a single quote) can be escaped with the backslash character:

'Lorem O\'Little Ipsum'


Example: true

Boolean data types are always either true or false.



Example: NULL

NULL describes the absence of a value. There are only two use cases for searching using the NULL type:

  1. For the absense of a value, e.g. City Eq NULL
  2. For the precense of a value, e.g. City Ne NULL


Functions may be used in place of data values for supported data types to provide more flexible searches.

Name Supported Data Type Description Example
toupper Character Transform all charaters in the provided string to upper case. toupper(City) Eq toupper('Fargo')
tolower Character Transform all charaters in the provided string to lower case. tolower(City) Eq tolower('Fargo')
startswith Character Matches records whose fields start with the provided string City Eq startswith('fargo')
endswith Character Matches records whose fields end with the provided string City Eq endswith('fargo')
contains Character Matches records whose fields contain the provided string City Eq contains('fargo')
now Date and Datetime Use the current date and time to search on a field. OriginalEntryTimestamp Lt now()
days Date and Datetime Search on a field within a range of days from the current date. OriginalEntryTimestamp Ge days(-7)
weekdays Date and Datetime Search on a field within a range of weekdays (Monday through Friday) from the current date. Weekends will be excluded from the number of days. OriginalEntryTimestamp Ge weekdays(-5)
months Date and Datetime Search on a field within a range of months from the current date. OriginalEntryTimestamp Ge months(-6)
years Date and Datetime Search on a field within a range of years from the current date. OriginalEntryTimestamp Ge years(-2)
date Datetime fields Search fields for a certain date regardless of the day. date(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Ge 2016-01-01
time Datetime fields Search fields for a certain time regardless of the day. time(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Ge 12:00
year Date and Datetime fields Search fields by a given year. year(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Ge 2012
month Date and Datetime fields Search fields by a given month. month(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Ge 10
day Date and Datetime fields Search fields by a given day of the month. day(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Ge 30
dayofweek Date and Datetime fields Search fields by a given day of the week using the ISO 8601 value for weekday number. dayofweek(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Eq 7
dayofyear Date and Datetime fields Search fields by a given day of the year. dayofyear(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Le 90
hour Datetime fields Search fields for a given hour of the day (0-23), disregarding the date. hour(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Ge 12
minute Datetime fields Search fields for a given minute of the hour, disregarding the date. minute(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Ge 58
second Datetime fields Search fields for a given second of the minute, disregarding the date and hour. second(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Ge 45
fractionalseconds Datetime fields Search fields by the fraction of a second they occurred, disregarding the date, hour, minute and so forth. fractionalseconds(OriginalEntryTimestamp) Ge 0.1
range MapCoordinate only Inclusively matches all strings between the given two parameters. Equivalent to MyField Bt 'M01','M03'. MapCoordinate Eq range('M01','M03')

SparkQL Errors

To help with debugging errors when searching, a SparkQLErrors attribute is included in responses that fail due to an invalid _filter parameter. See the response description documentation for more details.